Sports Betting Website Punters Realm Launches Revolutionary User-Controlled Layout

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Punters Realm was founded in 2005 by a small group of friends who were actively engaged in sports and online sports betting.

LONDON–(BUSINESS WIRE)–As Web users become more demanding of highly useable websites, the Internet has started to adapt. Many of todays websites reflect an outdated style with very limited usability; attributes of an era before Web 2.0 became main stream. Today, with the launch of Punters Realm, we have is a first to bring this usability experience to the users of the online sports betting world. Placement, feeds and content can be adjusted and saved, finally putting the users behind the wheel of their experience says Jeffrey Cammack, Marketing Manager for Punters Realm. This, along with a collection of new interactive features that allows the readership to engage and manage the sports betting news that reaches them, gives a level of empowerment the site creators thought was about due.

Punters Realm is very proud to announce that we have done what the sports betting industry has not yet been able to do. This customizable website will engage a betting audience that will hold a sports bettors interest visit after visit says Slick, a moderator at The Daily Punt Forum. They felt the need had come for a one-stop-shop for news that covered all sports, saving individuals from visiting a collection of m88 sites and instead importing the news feeds that interests them.

Online sports betting information portals have changed little since the industry started in the late 1990s.

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A drag-and-drop feature that allows users to place objects on a page dependent on their order of importance to the experience. While some readers will visit to read expert sports betting tips and others to find the best betting odds on games and customizable news feeds, Punters Realm will accommodate their wishes that will be saved until their next visit

Hazard the latest Chelsea FC star to back Mourinho; insists he was not upset at being dropped against Porto

Then it is my task to encourage the boys on the field.

International break might be a welcome distraction for Hazard

With the Belgians scheduled to face Andorra and Israel during the international break and set to confirm qualification for next summers tournament in France, Hazard could well get the confidence boost needed to get his season going.

His support for Mourinho is also another positive sign, and if taken at face value, indicates that even though there may be differences of opinion, the Chelsea FC squad remains a strong unit. Ahead of their m88 game against Andorra, Hazard spoke to Voetbal Krant (via WAGNH) about the situation at Chelsea FC: I know, you guys. It is unlikely that Hazard will go the entire season without hitting a purple patch, and the Blues fortunes will almost certainly change when that happens.

Belgian superstar Eden Hazard has become the latest Chelsea FC player to back manager Jos Mourinho, insisting he was not upset by the Portugueses decision to leave him on the bench against FC Porto in the Champions League

2014-2015 PFA Player of the Year Eden Hazard has had an objectively poor season thus far by his standards, with the Chelsea FC team as a whole struggling with a lack of confidence brought on by their poor early-season form.

Belgium should have no difficulties beating both Andorra and Israel, and even though the Chelsea FC attacker will face opposition of a higher quality in the Premier League, a strong showing in the Red Devils games will help him build up momentum as the Blues enter a crucial period in their season.

While away on Belgium duty, the 24-year-old became the latest player to back Mourinho, while also confessing that he has not been able to come up with an explanation for his poor form, or indeed that of the teams.

Hazard acknowledges poor form, shows Mourinho support

The Belgian is yet to open his account in the Premier League, with his strike against Arsenal FC being ruled as a Calum Chambers own goal. However, Hazard seems to have found his goalscoring boots for the national team, scoring in both of their qualifying games in the previous international break.. [My form] could be better. Personally, it is not very good, but also the team (Chelsea) is in a dip.

Honestly, I do not know [the cause]. But is not that normal in a football career? Sometimes you happen to fall.

The interview appears to have been a fairly informal one, with Hazard also insisting that he wasnt upset by Mourinhos decision to bench him against FC Porto: I have no problems with [Mourinho putting me on the bench against Porto]. But Im not worried. For me it is the first time that the momentum is a little less

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Champions League’s Crazy Eights predictions

The Madrid side are reveling in their one-point lead over the Catalans in La Liga standings, while Barca who tied Los Colchoneros 0-0 at the Vicente Caldron in January will host Madrid on the last game of the season at the Camp Nou with at least seasonal bragging rights on the line. Now the teams have international competition matches on April 1st and 9th to add to their servings.

Playing Barcelona at home when it matters is a daunting task, just ask any world class club save Bayern. Prediction: Real makes a meal of Dortmund, beating them decisively if perhaps not in as demoralizing a manner for Dortmund as some of the Real fans might want.

On the field, the teams match up well and each has the big guns to take over a m88 match or stop someone from so doing. Prediction: In the end Ibra progresses in the only stage left him to make good on his claim that the World Cup will miss him more than him it, and PSG will squeeze by Chelsea and into the semifinals. It was to be expected that with three Spanish Football teams in the pot two might just be drawn together and La Liga rivals Barcelona FC and Atletico Madrid obliged.

On the mirror side a potentially all-Brazilian defense of Thiago Silva, Marquinhos, Alex, and Maxwell would have their hands full with the likes of Samuel Eto’o, Fernando Torres and Demba Ba, to pick three of Mou’s. In a year of mostly downer news for the Red Devils, and with a potential way out of the morass they have been mired in for so long, the final straw was delivered in the form of the injury to Robin Van Persie which will keep him out of uniform for the next six weeks.

Nothing in last year’s Champions League competition was more disturbing than the officiating of the match between Real Madrid and Borussia Dortmnud at Westfalenstadion. Prediction: Barca moves on with a statement win at home despite lesser luck at the Calderon. And that may have been the gods’ kindness–an exit at the hands of the champs is no dishonor.

For Merengues fans the end result, a 2-0 win at home that yet meant going out 4-3 on aggregate when a single extra goal would have seen them through, was a bitter pill to swallow.

Zlatan Ibrahimovic’s PSG got to play the Only One’s Chelsea FC, Real Madrid got a grudge rematch with Borussia Dortmund, and Manchester United have the chance to make up for, if not erase from memory, a dismal season (by their standards) by eliminating all-world, super-club and cup holders Bayern Munich.

In the competition’s biggest clash of egos PSG’s Ibrahimovic and Chelsea coach Jose Mourinho get to face off in another entertaining match-up. David Moyes and troops, Bayern is a tough obstacle to surpass. This is well known Atletico that comes knocking and despite their domestic standing and growing international pedigree familiarity does breed contempt and Barca are not impressed. The Madrid side is playing its best football at just the right time and if they beat Barca on Sunday the high will carry them well into the Spring months.

To say that Barcelona and Atletico have had much to compete for lately is to understate their 2014 rivalry. Given how this season has gone though, this Sunday’s Clasico at the Bernabeu and/or May 18th’s match in Barcelona may well decide the domestic league title.

The draw for the 2014 Champions League final eight teams has some fantastic, some might say crazy, match ups. The uber-player and uber-coach have been kind to one another in public utterances and most recent writings you might peruse, but come play time these two are bound to offer up some memorable perspectives to accompany the application of their abundant football prowess.

Prediction: Pep Guardiola’s Bayern win comfortably, convincingly, but not by a KO–one has to believe that ManU has too much pride and experience to allow that to happen–this should be a unanimous decision instead.

Cristiano Ronaldo is having a career year to go along with his FIFA Ballon d’Or and a Champions League tournament win, as a precursor to bigger stages this summer is just what the Portuguese superstar wants and needs–la decima on his watch. The video speaks for itself but the Spanish side, many felt, had as much reason to complain as did the Malaga fans playing the same opponent the previous fortnight at the same stadium.

Without Robin, and despite having Wayne Rooney and Danny Welbeck back to their scoring ways of late, ManU simply is no match for the European club champs. Unfortunately, even if things were going swimmingly for poor Mr. A defensive roster of Petr Cech, Branislaw Ivanovic, Ashley Cole, David Luis and Gary Cahill, to pick a few potential starters, aided by the defensive minded Mou, should be a match for PSG coach Laurent Blanc’s attacking trio of Zlatan, Edinson Cavani, and Ezequiel Lavezzi.. But the gods have their ways and this year it is Real on the upswing and on a mission, and Dortmund is simply the cherry on top. Manchester United fans must be asking themselves if the gods are truly that cruel or that kind. This will be a hard fought tie with the Catalans prevailing as Lionel Messi rounds out into full-throttle shape at the right time and Neymar comes into his own at about the same time

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Manchester United and Liverpool FC is the Premier League’s fiercest rivalry

As he walked off the Liverpool man pointed the finger of blame at Sir Alex Ferguson, accusing him of influencing the referee’s decision.

Shelvey apologised after the game and Ferguson admitted he was impressed, telling the midfielder he had ‘a bit of b***s about him.’

Jonjo Shelvey points the finger of blame at Sir Alex Ferguson after being sent off in the September 2012 meeting at Anfield

PHONE CALL FOR ROONEY

Encounters between these two are usually settled by the fun88 odd goal and in January 2005 it was Wayne Rooney that settled it in United’s favour.

The England striker had just made the switch from Everton and was heckled throughout. Share or comment on this article

ByAdam Shergold for MailOnline

Published: 11:22 GMT, 10 September 2015 | Updated: 15:42 GMT, 10 September 2015

It has long been English football’s most combustible fixture, a contest liable to explode at any second after a malicious tackle or word out of turn.

Manchester United vs Liverpool is the Premier League’s answer to the ‘Clasico’, a rivalry between two cities on so many levels condensed into 90 minutes on the football pitch.

We’ve had full-scale melees, rash two-footed challenges, ranting and raving, and plenty of handbags.

Ahead of Saturday’s showdown at Old Trafford, we take a look back at 10 flashpoints in this fixture from the modern era.

EVRA AND SUAREZ

The most controversial incident of recent times saw Liverpool striker Luis Suarez fined 40,000 and banned for eight games after being found guilty of racially abusing Manchester United defender Patrice Evra in the Anfield contest on October 15, 2011.

A Football Association investigation found Suarez used the word ‘negro’ five times during an argument and concluded that the Uruguayan’s testimony was unreliable and inconsistent. Liverpool continued to protest his innocence.

The controversy rumbled on when the teams next met, with Suarez appearing to snub Evra’s handshake before the match, leading to further condemnation.

Luis Suarez (left) and Patrice Evra clash after the Liverpool striker racially abused the Manchester United defender in October 2011

Suarez, who was banned for eight games following an FA investigation, refused to shake Evra’s hand before the club’s next meeting

Evra celebrated in front of Suarez after Man United beat Liverpool 2-1 in the return fixture at Old Trafford later in the season

VIDIC’S RED CARDS

Nemanja Vidic didn’t exactly have the best disciplinary record against Liverpool, having been sent off four times between 2008 and 2014.

The first came in a 2-1 loss for United at Anfield in September 2008, leading with the elbow in an aerial duel with Xabi Alonso and earning a second yellow card.

The Vidic dismissal that remains in the memory came in Liverpool’s 4-1 win at Old Trafford in March 2009 when he finally snapped after an afternoon of being tormented by Fernando Torres, bringing down Steven Gerrard and seeing red.

Further dismissals followed at Anfield in October 2009 – making it three in as many games – and then in Liverpool’s 3-0 win at Old Trafford in the depths of the Moyes era in March 2014.

Vidic is shown the red card at Anfield back in September 2008, compounding United’s misery in a 2-1 defeat

This tackle on Steven Gerrard led to Vidic receiving another red card during Liverpool’s 4-1 win at Old Trafford in March 2009

And it was three-in-a-row when Vidic was dismissed in United’s 2-0 defeat on Merseyside back in October 2009

Vidic challenges Daniel Sturridge, earning his fourth red card against Liverpool, in their 3-0 win at Old Trafford in March 2014

KEANE AND FOWLER

This iconic photograph from the 1996 FA Cup Final sums up this fixture’s antagonism as Roy Keane and Robbie Fowler exchange words.

Hero worshipped at their respective clubs, there was no other contest they enjoyed more.

It was United’s day, winning 1-0 thanks to a late Eric Cantona winner and completing the Double for the second time in three seasons.

Robbie Fowler and Roy Keane exchange words during the 1996 FA Cup final at Wembley. It may have stalled United’s Treble challenge but the blow wasn’t fatal.

Denis Irwin is sent off by referee David Elleray for kicking the ball away as Liverpool fight back from two-down to draw in 1999

GERRARD’S RAPID RED

The 16th – and most recent – red card in this fixture came back in March when Steven Gerrard, facing United for the final time in a Red shirt, was dismissed just 38 seconds after coming on as a substitute.

The Liverpool skipper stamped on Ander Herrera, leaving referee Martin Atkinson little choice.

Steven Gerrard was sent off for this stamp on Ander Herrera during United’s 2-1 win at Liverpool back in March

The Liverpool captain, playing against Man United for the final time, was dismissed a mere 38 seconds after coming on as a substitute

MELEE MADNESS

There have been plenty of confrontations between the two sets of players over the years but the March 2011 meeting at Anfield seemed to specialise in them.

There was one after Jamie Carragher’s x-rated challenge on Nani and also when Rafael da Silva unwisely decided to pick a fight with the whole Liverpool side.

Nani is left with blood pouring from his shin after a rash challenge from Jamie Carragher (centre right) in the 2011 meeting at Anfield

The Liverpool defender only received a yellow card for his rash tackle, which came in a 3-1 victory for his side

Rafael da Silva decides to take on a group of Liverpool players during the same Premier League encounter

NEVILLE VS THE SCOUSERS

Gary Neville was never too fond of Liverpool Football Club, nor the city of Liverpool, nor the people of Liverpool.

Never the most popular figure on Merseyside, things escalated in 2006 when Neville marked Rio Ferdinand’s late winner at Old Trafford by running to the away section and kissing the badge on his shirt.

Various outspoken comments about Liverpool and clashes with Jamie Carragher, now his co-pundit on Sky Sports’ Monday Night Football, did little to repair the damage.

Gary Neville didn’t endear himself to the Liverpool public after this public display of affection for United back in 2006

Neville’s outspoken antipathy towards Liverpool always ensured him a warm welcome at Anfield

And Neville’s many clashes with Liverpool favourite Carragher during their playing days did little to improve relations

RAFA’S ‘FACTS’ RANT

In one of the most surreal moments in Premier League history, Liverpool manager Rafa Benitez in January 2009 decided to launch an extraordinary critique of Sir Alex Ferguson.

During a rant that left many questioning the Spaniard’s sanity, he claimed Ferguson was the only manager in the Premier League who could escape punishment over disciplinary breaches, accused the Scot of playing ‘mind games’ because he was scared of Liverpool’s challenge and even suggested his United counterpart arranged the fixture list.

The infamous ‘facts’ speech was met with widespread ridicule.. All of a sudden, United look rattled and Irwin is shown a second yellow card by referee David Elleray for booting the ball away in an attempt to wind down the clock.

It proves costly, with United old boy Paul Ince popping up to equalise in the dying moments. An expensive fit of rage for one Liverpool fan.

Wayne Rooney is pelted with a mobile phone after celebrating in front of the Kop following his goal at Anfield in 2005

Rooney celebrates with Cristiano Ronaldo after scoring, responding to the abuse aimed his way following his switch from Everton

IRWIN SEES RED

May 1999 and Manchester United are closing in on their famous Treble triumph. Liverpool are determined to halt the trophy charge.

In a pulsating game played out to a febrile Anfield atmosphere, United take a two-goal lead through Dwight Yorke’s header and a Denis Irwin penalty.

But Liverpool rally and Jamie Redknapp halves the deficit midway through the second-half. United won the match 1-0 and lifted the trophy

SHELVEY AND FERGUSON

It was September 2012 and the Anfield fixture was played against the backdrop of the landmark publication of findings of an independent panel investigating the Hillsborough Disaster, raising hopes that justice might finally be achieved for ‘the 96′.

Before the match, United legend Sir Bobby Charlton presented flowers to Liverpool’s record scorer Ian Rush as opposing captains Gerrard and Ryan Giggs released 96 red balloons in memory of those who lost their lives.

But the goodwill went out the window on 39 minutes when Jonjo Shelvey lunged in two-footed at Jonny Evans and was shown a straight red card. And when his under-struck 25-yarder squirmed under Jerzy Dudek in the 21st minute, he knew how he was going to celebrate.

Running to the Kop, Rooney cupped his ears and was pelted with all kinds of objects, among them a mobile phone

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AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Louis. 

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . It was so unusual at the time . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

Mr. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

Gateway to the West

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

From a front-line perspective

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

***

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

Ground Zero

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Less Than Zero

Air Canada

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).. Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

AIDS now had a face.

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. . .   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

Dr. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

Update note:Dr. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St.  

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

False Positive

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. . . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Omega Man

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

The Road to Zero

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. 1952-1953).

This makes little sense. 

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa

Negative Effects of Gambling

The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.

? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.

? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. The two go hand in hand. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.

? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.

You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.

Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.

? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.

Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.

? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.

? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.

? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.

? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.

Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.

? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.

? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.

? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.

? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.

Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.

? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.

? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.

? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.

Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy

? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.

? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.

? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.

? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. ? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.

? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.

? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.

? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.

? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.

? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.

? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.

Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time

? Gambling has proven to be addictive

Casinos 101- How to Avoid Being Ripped Off

Look carefully at the picture to your right for a perfect example of what some one once used. Their public policies for customer protection look great from a distance.

The idea of cheating is likely as old as mankind, but some people/places have taken it to extremes. Believe it or not, I once had a dealer tell me first hand that 50% of the people dealing at that establishment were card mechanics. The casinos have mastered this art of deception from what I have seen. There are so many things going on behind the curtain that it would amaze you. However, take a walk inside that world, and you will know first hand that those public policies are crap. So, for those who want to know, here is a list of things to watch out for when you are headed to any casino.

. If that doesn’t alert you, nothing will. Large corporations build these huge fortresses with one thing in mind, taking your money

Horse Racing Systems: 5 That Work

My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.

This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.

Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.

Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!

Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.

However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.

. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.

The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.

For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.

Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.

Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.

For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60′s and 70′s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.

In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.

In that spirit. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.

Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.

How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.

Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. None of them work.

In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.

Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.

Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.

None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. My study suggests that’s not the case.

First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar

Can Top Indian Casinos compare to Las Vegas Casinos? by David Cook

However, just like in Sin City itself, the quality of Indian Casinos varies dramatically.

1) Barona Valley Ranch Resort and Casino

5) Pechanga Resort and Casino

Harrah’s Rincon Casino follows in the footsteps of the Harrah’s gaming brand. A new 21-story hotel tower adds to the resort feel and recently was voted as having the Best Rooms, Best Suites, Best Hotel Service and more in 2005 by Casino Player magazine. A-list performers scheduled regularly in the 1,200- seat Pechanga Theater

With literally hundreds of Indian Casinos spread out across the United States, to give you an idea of the level of quality gaming emerging on reservations countrywide, let’s focus in on a few of the top Indian Casinos leading the way. This spectacular highly acclaimed ranch-themed resort and casino has earned various awards for its casino and games, as well as for its restaurants and golf club.

4) Pala Casino . The casino also caters to the trend setting crowd with their new V Lounge bar.

You might be surprised…

If you are getting the itch to visit Vegas but don’t want to make the trek, you might not have to look much further than your local Indian Casino.

As one of the country’s newest resort destinations, Pechanga Resort & Casino, an AAA four-diamond property, offers the best of hotel luxury, Vegas style gaming, entertainment, meeting facilities and seven fine dining choices. Beyond its top notch gaming, Viejas Entertainment puts on high caliber concerts and the Viejas Outlet shopping center is known for it’s upscale outlet shopping. Harrah’s Rincon routinely attracts famous acts to it’s entertainment complex. 2) Viejas Casino

Here’s a quick snapshot of 6 Top Indian Casinos in San Diego:

Viejas is a well-established and popular Indian casino.

6) Sycuan Resort and Casino

You definitely won’t be let down by any of the Top 6 San Diego Indian Casinos.

A good place to start is from an area often considered the Indian Casino capital of California and the location of an extremely competitive Indian Casino market, San Diego, California.

Pala Casino offers award winning gaming, has eight restaurants, a 10,000 square foot day spa, a four-diamond resort with 507 deluxe hotel rooms, including 82 suites, four entertainment venues and an Olympic size pool with 12 cabanas. The Showcase Theatre features great shows and concerts. Pala routinely attracts big name entertainment concerts as well.

In addition to great gaming, dining and entertainment, Sycuan Resort offers 54 holes of Southern California’s best golf, championship tennis courts, great overnight accommodations and a relaxing atmosphere to enjoy cocktails and fine dining. Amenities include a luxurious spa and a state-of-the-art fitness center.

3) Harrah’s Rincon Casino

Indian Casinos all around the country are shattering the notion that Indian Casinos are a less than par alternative when compared to their Las Vegas counterparts.

Barona offers visitors Vegas style gaming action, combined with unique dining experiences, a luxurious hotel, and world-class golf

Negative Effects of Gambling

Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.

? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.

? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.

? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.

Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time

Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.

? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.

? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.

? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.

? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.

? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.

? Gambling has proven to be addictive. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.

? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.

? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.

? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.

? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.

? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. The two go hand in hand. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.

? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.

Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy

? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.

? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.

? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.

? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.

Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.

? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.

? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.

? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.

? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.

You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.

? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.

? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.

? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.

Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.

? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children

Biggest Gambling Countries In The World

Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.

Gambling’s Famous Icons

Related links:

Singapore

Top Online Gambling Mistakes

Era of Online Gambling

The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada. According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.

Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.. In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers. Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World

The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine. Most profits go to education, arts and culture.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Canada

Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas. H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.

Italy

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Australia

Finland

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

AIDS now had a face.

Ground Zero

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

From a front-line perspective

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

Omega Man

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Less Than Zero

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

Mr. . Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . Louis. 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. .   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

False Positive

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

***

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

The Road to Zero

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Gateway to the West

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

Dr.  

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. It was so unusual at the time . 1952-1953).

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

Air Canada

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

This makes little sense. 

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

But, it doesn’t end there. .

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

Update note:Dr

Make Bets That Assure You A Win

All of us are aware that betting is a risky affair,this unpredicted event can take you to deep profits and at the same time you can lose also. Both of the teams have unbeatable good players,but then you should make bets after doing plenty of research work,don’t just stick to one,play smartly. Many times you might be very close to win,but end up losing.

As the grand soccer world cup 200 is gearing near, players have great opportunity to try hand in making lucrative bets. Make sure you have maintained a betting limit , instead of wagering with hefty bucks, play with a small amount many times. Website offering betting tips have plethora of tips along with a statistical analysis that guides you and let you focus on the certainty of the bets at stake. The real of of online soccer betting is not as simple as the flip of a coin which lets you decide outcome of the match. Making money from soccer betting is all the matter of taking advantage from the information. Here you get trusted and reliable statistics, tables, betting tips and latest results that relates to football betting. Websites guides players about recommendable bookmakers, betting tips, free bets and bonuses which let the players to have a unique betting style.

Managing your betting amount is a crucial part to consider while you are placing soccer bets. Online betting websites are a great source which provide players with enriched betting odds, higher stakes and array of bets for novices as well experienced punters. Generally people get excited and make bets for larger amount all the time,this can lead them to debts because bankroll emptied quite early. However, despite of being an unpredictable affair betting lets you make huge money within a short span. Losing with a small amount will not be a disaster,you can easily make other bets with more excitement and fun.

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

Make your thoughts clear had have a strong base to make the most of this soccer betting season.

. It is essential to make a strong by soccer betting,you do not easily lose your calm and play with utmost patience.

Online-betting.me.uk provides all information that you require for placing winning soccer bets. It’s quite visible that Spain and Brazil are hot favorites for this soccer season, with presence of other teams,you need to carefully analyze their individualized performance and then place bets. You can also take a look on online lives scores of the matches and take the reviews of expert’s punter

By: Pedro Walker

The money making strategy in soccer betting is all about taking advantage from the information available,the more you are acquainted with latest trends the more you have chances of making as much money as you can

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